Wednesday, 28 June 2017


He DARED to try to ensure that the mineral wealth of his country would be controlled by his people not rich foreigners - and was MURDERED by orders from the USA & Belgian Governments.
I see this and I feel that in his mind, in this instant, he is thinking about how he tried to do what is best for his people... and a handful of evil men in cities far away were able to turn his own people against him with their lies and their money....
Only the good die young they say, but I say only those who are a threat to the system of evil that runs this world die young - before they have a chance to fully succeed.

Patrice Lumumba, the first legally elected prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), was assassinated on 17 January, 1961. This heinous crime was a culmination of two inter-related assassination plots by American and Belgian governments, which used Congolese accomplices and a Belgian execution squad to carry out the deed.
Ludo De Witte, the Belgian author of the best book on this crime, qualifies it as "the most important assassination of the 20th century". The assassination's historical importance lies in a multitude of factors, the most pertinent being the global context in which it took place, its impact on Congolese politics since then and Lumumba's overall legacy as a nationalist leader.
For 126 years, the US and Belgium have played key roles in shaping Congo's destiny. In April 1884, seven months before the Berlin Congress, the US became the first country in the world to recognise the claims of King Leopold II of the Belgians to the territories of the Congo Basin.
When the atrocities related to brutal economic exploitation in Leopold's Congo Free State resulted in millions of fatalities, the US joined other world powers to force Belgium to take over the country as a regular colony. And it was during the colonial period that the US acquired a strategic stake in the enormous natural wealth of the Congo, following its use of the uranium from Congolese mines to manufacture the first atomic weapons, the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs.
With the outbreak of the cold war, it was inevitable that the US and its western allies would not be prepared to let Africans have effective control over strategic raw materials, lest these fall in the hands of their enemies in the Soviet camp. It is in this regard that Patrice Lumumba's determination to achieve genuine independence and to have full control over Congo's resources in order to utilise them to improve the living conditions of our people was perceived as a threat to western interests. To fight him, the US and Belgium used all the tools and resources at their disposal, including the United Nations secretariat, under Dag Hammarskjöld and Ralph Bunche, to buy the support of Lumumba's Congolese rivals , and hired killers.
In Congo, Lumumba's assassination is rightly viewed as the country's original sin. Coming less than seven months after independence (on 30 June, 1960), it was a stumbling block to the ideals of national unity, economic independence and pan-African solidarity that Lumumba had championed, as well as a shattering blow to the hopes of millions of Congolese for freedom and material prosperity.
The assassination took place at a time when the country had fallen under four separate governments: the central government in Kinshasa (then Léopoldville); a rival central government by Lumumba's followers in Kisangani (then Stanleyville); and the secessionist regimes in the mineral-rich provinces of Katanga and South Kasai. Since Lumumba's physical elimination had removed what the west saw as the major threat to their interests in the Congo, internationally-led efforts were undertaken to restore the authority of the moderate and pro-western regime in Kinshasa over the entire country. These resulted in ending the Lumumbist regime in Kisangani in August 1961, the secession of South Kasai in September 1962, and the Katanga secession in January 1963.
No sooner did this unification process end than a radical social movement for a "second independence" arose to challenge the neocolonial state and its pro-western leadership. This mass movement of peasants, workers, the urban unemployed, students and lower civil servants found an eager leadership among Lumumba's lieutenants, most of whom had regrouped to establish a National Liberation Council (CNL) in October 1963 in Brazzaville, across the Congo river from Kinshasa. The strengths and weaknesses of this movement may serve as a way of gauging the overall legacy of Patrice Lumumba for Congo and Africa as a whole.
The most positive aspect of this legacy was manifest in the selfless devotion of Pierre Mulele to radical change for purposes of meeting the deepest aspirations of the Congolese people for democracy and social progress. On the other hand, the CNL leadership, which included Christophe Gbenye and Laurent-Désiré Kabila, was more interested in power and its attendant privileges than in the people's welfare. This is Lumumbism in words rather than in deeds. As president three decades later, Laurent Kabila did little to move from words to deeds.

Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja is professor of African and Afro-American studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and author of The Congo from Leopold to Kabila: A People's History

Friday, 23 June 2017



QUEEN VICTORIA'S grandchildren all married each other, and many of her children were psychopaths. One of her favourite grandchildren was Prince Carl Eduard Coburg who attended Eton and was a British Prince who was a member of the Order of the Garter. He was sent to Germany and installed as a General in the armed forces, and he then set about conscripting the youngest and fittest of German society who he then commanded and killed on battlefields of the First World War. It was Prince Carl Eduard Coburg and his uncle, the Kaiser, who caused millions of people to be gassed and murdered between 1914-1918. On the other side of the first world war battlefields was his cousin - King George V - commanding the British troops and overseeing the first use of Chemical Weapons such as Mustard Gas and Chlorine bombs. Both these men were British Royals, educated at the British tax payers' expense, both these men were directly related to Queen Victoria, they were both psychopaths… They were both members of the Order of the Garter. They were both raised at Buckingham Palace.

Within just 19 years of the end of the first world war, the 'Third Reich' had been invented, and a former victim of a mustard gas attack, Adolf Hitler was employed by Prince Carl Eduard Coburg to be the front-man in the second world war. Heinrich Himmler was the 2nd in command, and the god-son of Prince Heinrich of Bavaria - but the main psychopath in charge of operations was Prince Carl Eduard Coburg. The Duke of Edinburgh's sisters married senior NAZI officers who were Princes and also descendants of Queen Victoria. This incestuous cabal of kings, princes and dukes then stage-managed and funded the NAZI party and are responsible for killing 45 million+ people.

The sheer scale and audacity of this psychopathic master-plan shocked Hitler, who said "Today I met the Antichrist - he was cruel and intrepid and he frightened me!" following his meeting with the British Prince Carl Eduard Coburg. Much of what I have just written has been deliberately airbrushed from the history books. The E.U. undemocratic superstate government is the end-game in this master-plan, devised and funded by royal psychopaths. No wonder Buckingham Palace have not uttered a word about how British people's rights have been taken away bit-by-bit by the E.U. - the E.U. is their long-term plan - to grab and control the ancient nations of Europe, to mortally inflict high rates of VAT on all small businesses, and to engineer yet more wars where the 'peasants' can be culled by 'dying on the battlefields to defend the right of the very people who loathe them to keep being the parasites of global humanity.


Monday, 5 June 2017


 Above and below - MIkaela Jade in the United Nations General Assembly Hall (where all the Heads of State of the world address humanity) for the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues 14th Session in 2015 with some of her beautiful indigenous sisters who did the Tribal Link Project Access training course with her
From left to right - Nwe Oo (Burma), Mikaela, Angie Abdilla (Tasmania), Yamila Callisaya (Peru), Tai Pellicier (Boriken/Puerto Rico) & Monica Ponton Arrington (USA) 

Mikaela on 9th February 2015 at a celebration of Australia's top 25 Indigenous entrepreneurs with the Prime Minister of Australia, and she was selected by the Country & Style Magazine as #24 of the 50 people who made a difference in Australia in 2015, see following the photos below:

I had the priviledge to meet Mikaela Jade in 2015 for the first time in New York City in April 2015, it was at the unique and widely recognised & hailed (for it's meritorious value) Tribal Link Foundation - Project Access, United Nations Training program for the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII); 14th session. She was just entering as a first year student, and I was returning as a past alumni and co-mentor for the 1st & 2nd year students.

This pre UNPFII training course is still conducted by respected Indigenous Rights Expert Andrea Carmen - of the International Indian Treaty Council/IITC, but is presently co-mentored by Ghazali Ohorella (Alifaru), Damon Corrie (Lokono-Arawak), Tai Pellicier (Taino-Arawak), and Victor Anthony Carmen Lopez (Yaqui & Lakota).

Mikaela has a soft-spoken, very sweet demeanour - as one encounters whenever one is fortunate to meet a true human being, full of love and compassion for everyone and everything around her. 
She gets a twinkle in her eyes when she speaks about her beautiful pre-teen daughters, and the dreams and spiritual experiences they all share with each other.

However, she is no mere pretty face, Mikaela possesses a dazzling intellect, far beyond the average person when it comes to understanding the double edged sword that modern high technology offers to mankind...if I were running a country - she would be my FIRST Choice as minister of Technology - she is THAT qualified in my opinion, I daresay she likely knows MORE about this genre than any Government official political appointee anywhere in the world functioning in this capacity!  She's the expert the experts go to and learn something new LOL. 

I say so in all honestly because she brings to the table something of VITAL importance that no other University graduate does,...a DEEP spiritual understanding of the dynamics at play within the technological pandoras box before us....and you can't learn that at ANY University. 

Whenever I think of her I miss our long conversations, it was like a loving schooling for me, one where I could excitedly grasp concepts that previously bored me to death - or else seemed remote and irrelevant to me personally,...and I could seamlessly drift between a waking dream time insight - and an empirical present physical reality revelation, and I loved that about her....of course her otherworldly charm and a flexibly keen sense of humour - that meshed very well with mine, became the icing on the proverbial cake for me.

Like so many others of the 16-20 annually globally selected indigenous graduates of the Tribal Link Foundation's Project Access Pre-UNPFII training program, Mikaela's star continues to rise and the future holds much that the keen observer of the high calibre of students this program graduates annually (like Mikaela), will continue to be amazed at....for these students tend to all go on to bigger and better things - and become assets to the worldwide collective who are pushing forward the wheel of  history in the indigenous rights & significant achievements arena. 

Mikaela at a wonderful side event on 13th May 2016 UNDP New York Headquarters, about the ethical digitalisation of cultural resources. 

Mikaela recently made it on the front page of The Australian and The Deal.

    When Mikaela was a Park Ranger in Kakadu National Park, now she is the Manager Community and Visitor Programs for ACT Parks and Conservation Service. 


Mikaela Jade is also a Commissioner on the Indigenous Democracy Defence Organization /IDDO


Saturday, 3 June 2017


This is why you need to educate yourself before you jump on the 'Get the illegal Mexican Immigrants out of the USA' bandwagon.

You should be aware that the US States of ARIZONA, CALIFORNIA, NEW MEXICO, UTAH, NEVADA AND ALMOST HALF OF COLORADO WERE PART OF MEXICO BEFORE AMERICA INVADED AND TOOK THEM FOR ITSELF, and these happen to be the states where most of the so-called
'illegal Mexican Immigrants'' technically they literally have more ancestral legal right to continue to live there than white 'Full-blooded/All-Americans' (as these European settler & colonist descendants like to call themselves).

But forget that for now, in the 1930's 400,000 Mexicans - and Mexican-Americans born in the USA - were deported from America - from these same former Mexican States mainly 
 - during the Great Depression in another classic 'Scapegoat'' excuse for America's I wonder how many of the descendants of those 400,0000  (which would be several million persons today) are among those the American government wants to round up and deport again?  Any educated guesses? Or just more uneducated racist vitriol ?
To use the argument that a few hundred Mexican criminals commit crimes in the USA each year to justify the deportation of MILLIONS of normal Mexicans (who tend to do jobs no American wants to do anyway), is just as ignorant as if the government of Thailand were to deport all white men from their country - because hundreds of white men go there every year to commit the crime of having sex with children (which is a known crime fact).

Do you see now how ignorant it sounds when the broad brush of ''POLYTRICKS'' is used to negatively collectively paint your own race?
Furthermore, any person with Native American DNA (as most Mexicans have) has more ancestral right to live in this entire Hemisphere than ANYONE who does not have the DNA of Native Americans in them...and for those truly uneducated - the words Amerindian/American indian/Native American


Wednesday, 31 May 2017


              Above -  Amanda Vick of the Gitxan First Nation of Canada at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) 16th Session, 24th April - 5th May 2017

Amanda Vick has a 'serious beauty' about her, you can sense that she is a no-nonsense person, incorruptibly committed to holding the great mirror of injustice and double standards up to the collective faces of the dominant (I say 'domineering') non-indigenous majority of the Neo-Colonial state known as Canada, lets not play semantic games..for technically ALL the Political Nation States of the Western Hemisphere (with the possible sole exception of Bolivia) are either Colonial - or Neo Colonial regimes - to greater or lesser degrees, they are all arcane origin imitation European social models where a privileged few reign supremely as untouchables - over  the vast majority whom they disdainfully  consider to be 'their subjects''...and despite International Human Rights Laws and conventions being EXPLICITLY CLEAR on this matter - these Neo-Colonial & Colonial mentality persons live in perpetual denial...never wanting to admit that they actually have NO legitimate right to deny/usurp/suppress  the very REAL and LEGITIMATE Sovereign status of ALL the indigenous Nations of the ''Americas''....only the lingering Colonial era egotistical racist spiritual cancer that has consumed much of their being keeps the non-indigenous majority blind to this FACT.

It would be almost comical - were it not such a gross continuing violation of human rights, to hear them (non-indigenous settler societies) talk about their '''right' to have (and govern) a political Nation-state erected ON the lands of other peoples who were & still ARE the de-facto landlords - whom their ancestors invaded, murdered and stole from in the first place ....but then think that the landlords do not have a GREATER legal right to actually have and Govern THEIR OWN LANDS than the thieves and heirs of historical criminal enterprises who still illegally rule over them!
At the very LEGAL MINIMUM least - you have to accept that we too have every right to have our own indigenous Political Nation-States with  seats in the United Nations alongside yours, that is just the legal reality you are going to have to accept one day, as we are never going to stop fighting to regain what we have a birthright to as equal human beings.
Amanda is just one of our unsilenceable voices, but we have many, and we are getting louder every year.

It was indeed an honor and privilege for me to have met her and been allowed through Amanda - to hear the voice of native victims of the residential school nightmare - as has happened to her many family member survivors. But that was not all I learned from Amanda...that infamous Highway of Tears in Canada happens to run through Gitxan territory, 18 women murdered - most of them Gitxan women - over a 40 year time period...but the most hurtful part is this...the Canadian Government and local authorities only erected signs on the Highway for the white Canadian victims....this reveals the lingering racism in Canada that their projected public global 'good guy' image does NOT reveal...the majority of native girls lives lost are somehow 'not as important' to dominant white Canadian society.
The SHOCKING National Canadian statistics for missing/murdered women is 4200, and 80% of those victims are native Canadians...the vast majority of cases remain unsolved to this day.

Amanda was in New York attending the 16th Session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues at UN Headquarters, and she received a pre-UNPFII training course taught by  respected Indigenous Rights expert Andrea Carmen of the International Indian Treaty Council/IITC, and co-mentored by Ghazali Ohorella (Alifaru), Damon Corrie (Lokono-Arawak), Tai Pellicier (Taino-Arawak), and Victor Anthony Lopez-Carmen (Yaqui & Lakota).

In the raw un-edited video clips below, our beautiful indigenous sister Amanda Vick of the Gitxan Tribal Nation of Canada, speaks briefly about the fact that the despicable Residential School system in Canada, and about the Alcoholism crisis that was ALSO deliberately created (as a self-perpetuating tool for indigenous cultural destruction) by non-indigenous colonizers who invaded native territories.

Amanda also speaks briefly about a TABOO that most Canadians do NOT want to admit, namely that the Government IMPOSED - and THE CHURCH ENFORCED on indigenous Canadian children - a carefully designed premeditated system for self-perpetuating cultural genocide.

Stolen  from their own families, their native languages literally beaten and tortured out of them, their native spirituality sexually eviscerated from their innocent souls by Bible quoting Pedophiles, all in a Colonial inspired RACIST attempt to eradicate indigenous identity in Canada and create brown skinned imitation Europeans who are broken in every way conceivable instead, sexual molestation of native children by native adults was NEVER documented as EVER occurring in native communities before the residential school created entire generations of native children who were sexually molested by priests & nuns (primarily)...and who (as crime statistics show) often grow up to become abusers themselves unfortunately.






Amanda in her Tribal Link Project Access Training Program in New York City, at UNDP Headquarters

Amanda in her own Tribal Lands 

                                                           Amanda - the serious beauty


 Proud Aborigine Rod Little of Australia (above & below), photos by Ghazali Ohorella

Rod Little is a big man - so I noticed him as soon as I entered the room, most Aboriginal men I have met at the United Nations have been giants compared to the average man alive today, all of them seem to be over 6 feet tall, for theirs has always been an ancient and mighty race, know to have been inhabiting Australia for at least 60,000 years - a time span that covers the period when Neanderthals still (and last) dominated in Europe!

However, Rod prefers to listen before he speaks, so he spent the greater part of the first day of his training absorbing information...but when he does decide to speak, everyone listens. Not just because you can sense the raw emotion and truth in all that he is saying...but for me it was like having the privilege of being in the presence of my maternal grandfather once again...and I did not want the moment to end (because my grandfather died when I was 6 years old and I never got to hear his words of wisdom growing up...not directly anyway...only through my mum and her siblings who faithfully repeated them to me and my siblings).

Rod has that Grandfatherly love and wise counsel countenance about him, and I had no idea that a movie about a true sad story of Australia's Aborigines - that I watched with my family and shed a tear over - was HIS family's story! I am talking about the critically acclaimed movie called 'Rabbit-Proof-Fence''. So it was a great honor to hear him talk about his aunts (whom the movie was about), yet saddening again to hear how white Australian nurses in the hospital in his elderly aunts final days were still referring to aboriginal grandmother for heavens sake - as 'that dirty black bitch'' (because they did not understand that she was asking to go to the bathroom in her own language and so they ignored her, and then blame her for the inevitable result of bodily movements when you are bedridden and too old to get up and go to relieve yourself on your own.

Our Aboriginal elder brother Rod Little (Co-Chair of the National Congress of Australia''s First Peoples) speaks briefly in the raw unedited clips below  about his own childhood trauma of being forcibly taken away from his family and sent to a Church run Mission residential school in Australia where abuse of Aboriginal children was rampant, yet he RETURNED to spend parts of the holiday (the one time each year these kids could get free of this nightmarish place and temporarily return to their families) to comfort those other Aboriginal children who had no family to go back to (because they were either all dead or whereabouts unknown). Only a true human being of noble character would do such a thing for the sake of others - and at such a young age - just a child himself - as well.

Rod was in New York attending the 16th Session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues at UN Headquarters, and he received a pre-UNPFII training course offered by the Tribal Link Foundation - called Project Access ....taught by  respected Indigenous Rights expert Andrea Carmen of the International Indian Treaty Council/IITC, and co-mentored by Ghazali Ohorella (Alifaru), Damon Corrie (Lokono-Arawak), Tai Pellicier (Taino-Arawak), and Victor Anthony Lopez-Carmen (Yaqui & Lakota).


You should note that the famous and gut-wrenchingly sad documentary movie that was made about some Aboriginal victims of the Australian Residential School system - a movie called 'Rabbit-proof Fence' was actually made about Rods family.



Monday, 29 May 2017


 We lived in freedom and governed our own lands
Europeans came  pretending to be friends
 But they invaded & annexed our lands
 They conquered all they could
Then they tried to kill all they couldn't
But they could not kill all of us


Hunting North American Indians in Barbados
Patricia Penn Hilden
University of California, Berkeley
May, 2002

This is a story. It is an abbreviated story of a quest, one that is far from finished. It begins with my first meeting with the great Caribbean poet, Kamau Brathwaite, on a rainy night in Canterbury, England, where Brathwaite was giving the first of three T.S. Eliot Lectures. That night, I heard him sing and drum and chant the echoes of West Africa, sounds he had found in Barbados, sounds he had heard as a child but which he hadn't then recognized because of the opposing cacophony of "Lil' England" noise then prevalent in Bajan identity formation. 

As I listened, I found myself thinking two things: first, that the indigenous sounds of North America were similarly muted, and even silenced, in our own version of "Lil' Englandism", and second, that something in what he was doing recalled an Indian amongst that African sound. At that time, I only wondered, though I began to talk to Kamau about this idea as the years passed and our friendship grew.

Then I visited Kamau Brathwaite in Barbados and he took me to look for Indians, in this case, the Arawaks, who had "disappeared" almost immediately after the first contact with Europeans, their diseases and their guns. We sought a site around a point at Pico. Brathwaite has written of this place, in Barabajan Poems.

"Now, final, Bathsheba. But we must include the
whole wild Maroon coast from RiverBay right
round to Pico & the miracle of Cove the ancient
 Amerindian religious settlement, through Cattlewash.

 to Martin's Bay and congoRock  & Con-setts in the distance..."

We didn't find Pico that day, though I have been there since. It remains a sacred place, despite the depredations of artifact-hungry archaeologists, who have lifted as much as possible of the indigenous material history of the island and placed it inside the post-independence Barbados Museum, where it lies in a special room designated "prehistory", producing a "heritage" for contemporary Barbadians in a manner familiar in North America.

But despite this assignment of Arawaks to a "pre-European, pre-African past", I continued to find Indians in Barbados. I kept seeing "Indian" place names, hearing "Indian" sounds. I knew, of course, that Indian slaves had come from South America and from the Mexican coast. But I knew also that many thousands of North America's indigenous peoples had been captured and sold into slavery. 

In fact, near the end of the 17th century, the Wampanoag leader, Metacomet, known to the English as King Philip, had warned New England's tribal people: "these people from the unknown world will cut down our groves, spoil our hunting and planting grounds, and drive us and our children from the graves of our parents and our council fires, and enslave our women and children." 

 I knew that tribal people had worked across the colonies, enslaved in households and workshops, on farms and in fisheries. I knew, too, that Indian slaves worked side by side with African slaves, constituting 1/3 of the slaves in early 18th century South Carolina, for example. Moreover, a handful of historians, Almon Lauber in 1913, followed by Caroline Foreman (1943) and Jack Forbes (1993), had argued that the trade in North American Indian slaves did not limit itself to the North American colonies or even to the trade between America and Europe. So I began to wonder if some North American Indians had not formed part of the slave population in Barbados and thus possibly provided the sources for the place names - "Indian Pond," "Indian Ground," "Indian Corner" - that dot the Barbados landscape. My quest had begun.

I started in the National Archives of Barbados, looking first, rather randomly, through late 17th century records. I quickly discovered that all the myriad - and hopeless - efforts to regulate and control slave rebellion referred consistently to "African and other slaves". But I knew that Indian slaves had also been brought from Guyana and from Venezuela, so these could well have been the "others" referred to. Then I came across the following act, dated June 1676:

            "Act to Prohibit the Bringing of Indian Slaves to this Island"
"This Act is passed to prevent the bringing of Indian slaves and as well to send away and transport those already brought to this island from New England and the adjacent colonies, being thought a people of too subtle, bloody and dangerous inclination to be and remain here....."

So there I had it: clear evidence that North America Indian people had indeed worked in Barbados's sugar plantation world. I then took up Richard Hall's Acts Passed in the Island of Barbados from 1643-1762.3 Here, too, were the tantalizing suggestions hidden in the language of more efforts to halt or prevent rebellion. I have time to read only a few:
27 October 1692: "An Act for the encouragement of all Negroes and other slaves that shall discover any conspiracy..."

----------------------: "An Act for prohibiting sale of rum or other strong liquor to any Negro or other Slave..."
----------------------: "An Act for the encouragement of such Negroes and other slaves that shall behave themselves courageously against the enemy in time of invasions (manumitted if two white men proved that they killed an enemy)..."

And even more specific wording:
6 January 1708: "An Act to prevent the vessels that trade here, to and from Martinico or elsewhere, from carrying off any Negro, Indian, or Mulattoe slaves...."

11 November 1731: "Act for amending an Act...entitled 'Act for the Governing of Negroes and for providing a proper maintenance and support for such Negroes, Indians, or Mulattoes as hereafter shall be manumitted or set free...."

Then a diversion. I encountered the only person who had then written about Indian slavery in Barbados, Jerome Handler. In 1968 he had written about the 1676 law but, knowing nothing of the history of North American Indian slavery, had reached different conclusions. Handler argued that North American natives formed only a minuscule, and therefore insignificant, number of Barbadian slaves. All the geographical references to "Indians", he insisted, referred only to Caribs or Arawaks, or to Indians brought from South America or the other Caribbean islands. "By the end of the first few decades of the eighteenth century," Handler wrote, there are few traces of [North American Indians] existing as a distinctive sub-cultural group."

But "traces," I knew, are more significant than Handler allowed. Stubbornly, I went on looking.

There were words, and here are a few:

At the beginning of the 18th century, in a South Carolina peopled by Indians, Africans, and Europeans, where Charleston formed the heart of the bustling North American-Caribbean slave trade, "mustee" meant people born of all three. In 1770, another word. In Scotland a Society of Gentlemen offered this definition of "mulatto" in their Encyclopedia Britannica: or a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences: "Mulatto: a name given in the Indies to those who are begotten by a Negro man on an Indian woman, or an Indian man on a Negro woman."

At the same time, North American colonial history was replete with references to Indians captured and sold into the slave trade, references often riddled with stereotypes born, as we shall see below, from the first moments of African Indian slavery. James Axtell, a noted scholar of the colonial era, offered a typical version of events: "The English incited 'civil' war between the tribes....[then] rewarded one side for producing Indian slaves who were then sold to the West Indies, often for more biddable black slaves."

 Axtell's absurd assertion, that "black slaves" were more desirable because more tractable, is repeated across United States history. Here is Yasuhide Kawashima, writing of Pequot warriors captured after escaping the Puritans' genocidal attempt to exterminate their people in the 1630s.7 After capture, they were "sold to the West Indies in exchange for more docile Blacks who became the first Negro slaves in New England." There are others like these two, purveying the same general idea, though with varying degrees of bigotry.

How did this stereotype of willing Black slaves and rebellious Indian slaves arise? Mason Wade offers a clue: "The Biloxi and New Orleans attempted to use Indian slaves to work the tobacco plantations but these ran away and it was decided to import Blacks from the French West Indies."

Of course. Indians could run away - to their own tribes, to other Indians, to escaped Black slaves in the many maroon communities that soon grew up wherever there was African slavery. So long as they were home, Indians knew where they were - much better than any European, as the records of Indian rescues of witless Europeans attest. Rather than trading boatloads of rebellious Indians for cargoes of "biddable" Africans, it is surely more likely that the English - in New England, Virginia, Barbados, and elsewhere - rounded up and exported any leaders or fomenters of rebellions, whether African or Indian. Removed from whatever place and community they knew, they were perhaps more easily subdued, more easily reduced to a state of hopeless exhaustion characteristic of any dislocated, enslaved peoples. (But it should be reiterated here that the laws of the Barbados Assembly testify eloquently to the constancy with which enslaved peoples continued to rebel, to run.)

Still, some more recent histories take a different view. Jill Lepore's In the Name of War, which narrates the Europeans' version of King Philip's War, takes note of the exchange of African and Indian slaves without characterizing either as "tractable" or "biddable." Indeed, she links Nathaniel Saltonstall's Continuation of the State of New-England, together with an Account of the Intended Rebellion of the Negroes in the Barbados, published in London in 1676, to the simultaneous revolt of New England Indians. "Terrified English colonists in Barbadoes believed that the Africans had 'intended to murther all the white people there,' just as panicked English colonists in New England feared that the Indians had 'risen almost round the countrey.'" 

She concludes, "the parallels between the two uprisings were uncanny and profoundly disquieting." Moreover, Governor Berkeley of Virginia complained in that same year that "the New England Indian infection had spread." And Barbados's panicky governor, Jonathan Atkins, had sent a similar warning to London shortly before: "the ships from New England still bring advice of burning, killing, and destroying daily done by the Indians and the infection extends as far as Maryland and Virginia."

So there is some hope for the overturning of this canard. Still, this stereotype, once spread through the colonies, continued for a long time to "justify" the importation of vast numbers of Africans to "replace" the "disappearing" Indians who were, of course, being sold for profit to the Caribbean. However scarce, Indians continued to be captured and sold to Barbados. After the 1670 founding of Charlestown by Sir John Colleton and his fellow Barbadians, dozens more landless Barbadians flocked to the area where they quickly replicated Barbados economic and social practices. Anthony MacFarlane tells us, "there ominous sign that [Carolina] would eventually follow [Barbados's] path, in that the settlers took Indians as slaves, both for their own use and for export to the West Indies."

 As commodities on the slave market, Indians were quite valuable. In neighboring Virginia in that era, "a child was worth more than her weight in deerskins; a single adult slave was equal in value to the leather produced in 2 years of hunting...By the latter half of the 17th century, if not before," Joel Martin reports, "slavery was big business in Virginia, an important part of the English trading regime."

Marking the historical moments when the British sold captive Indians into the Caribbean slave trade is possible. Every single rebellion against the invaders, beginning with the first organized resistance to the Virginians at the beginning of the 17th century and continuing through the Pequot genocide (1630s), and Metacom's Rebellion (1675-76), produced Indian slaves for the Caribbean trade. The slave trade was extensive. There is room here for only a few examples. 

The Carolinians waged a long struggle with Spain in Florida, the fruits of which were often captive Indians. Between 1702 and 1707, thousands of missionized Indians - already trained into docility and servitude - were sold into the Caribbean. The next year, Englishmen in the Carolinas seized between 10,000 and 12,000 more Christianized Indians and quickly dispatched them to slave islands in the West Indies. 

The Tuscaroras and Yamassees were so afflicted by these English colonial practices that both nations went to war to try to stop it. Both paid a heavy price, though the Tuscaroras survived. When they inevitably lost their 1711 war, the entire surviving population managed to flee north where they found refuge with the five nations of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy, ultimately surviving as the sixth nation of a confederation that continues today. 

The Yamassees, some of whom were part of the missionized Indians captured earlier, waged a long war against this slave trade, a war that lasted from 1715-28. They paid the ultimate price, their defeat signaling the virtual disappearance of the Yamassee nation though some survivors fled to other nations or to one of the hundreds of maroon communities across southeastern North America. A few years later, the defeat of the great pan-Indian rebellion of 1736-66, led by the famous war chief Pontiac, sent still more Indians on their way to Caribbean cane houses and cane fields. And from all the other invaded regions of North America came more rebellions, more slaves.

All the years between these markers, all over North America, slave raids and violent conflict produced humans for sale. The "Plantation Records" of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society carry these few documentary fragments. In 1630, John Winthrop sold an Indian to John Mainford of Barbadoes. Two decades later, Richard Ligon visited the island and recorded his "true and exact history", published upon his return to London in 1657.  Ligon recorded many encounters with "Indian" slaves, many working in the houses of his hosts. One woman taught him how to make corn pone by "scaring it very fine (and it will fall out as fine as the finest wheat-flower in England....)."  Indian men slaves made "perino", a drink "for their own drinking...made of Cassavy root, which I told you is a strong poyson; and this they cause their old wives, who have a small remainder of teeth, to chaw and spit out into water...." 

Ligon liked the Indians he met. He remarked, "As for the Indians, we have but few, and those fetcht from other Countries;...which we make slaves; the women who are better vers'd in ordering the Cassavie and making bread then (sic) the Negroes, we imploy for that purpose, as also for making Mobbie: the men we use for footmen and killing of fish, which they are good at; with their own bowes and arrows they will go out; and in a dayes time, kill as much fish as will serve a family of a dozen persons two or three dayes....They are very active men, and apt to learn anything sooner than the Negroes....they are much craftier and subtler then the Negroes; and in their nature falser; but in their bodies more active..."
Of course generations of African diaspora scholars have demolished this kind of reading of the behavior of African slaves - wiser than the Indians in not leaping to do the bidding of owners and far "subtler" in keeping their attitudes to themselves. But that Ligon so admired these Indians suggests the extent to which the Barbadian plantocracy shared these views and was anxious to accumulate more such people.

Shortly after Ligon's return home, the Barbados Museum records tell us, a large number of Narragansetts from Connecticut were sold to Barbados. In 1668, at least one Indian slave was sent from Boston to the island while in 1700, a "big sale" of Indians from North America to the West Indies occurred. A year later, in 1701, Acolapissa Indian captives were sold by Virginians into the Caribbean.

The early 18th century saw no end to this trade though the bulk of the market may have begun to shift to the French speaking Caribbean as the British continued their conquest westward and as the French continued to use the slave trade's profits to support their war efforts.  In 1729 the Louisiana French, together with their Choctaw allies, put an end to constant Natchez Indian revolts, capturing the Natchez war leader, Great Sun, plus some 480 others, and selling them all to the West Indies. The capture and sale of Natchez people to the islands continued until, one historian notes bleakly, by 1742 "the Natchez tribe had virtually disappeared."

Small little markers - ephemeral traces - but signs nonetheless of a vast dislocation, a terrible colonial "trail of tears" as later forced removals came to be known. Indians slaves were useful; Indians slaves were profitable; Indian slaves left behind land for the Europeans to steal.


The quest continues, and there isn't time to narrate the further fragments I have found. But it is clear to me now that Indian voices, muted, mixed in the "Negroe, Indian, and Mulattoe" slave worlds of the 17th and 18th centuries, form an as yet little heard chorus, mixed into the complicated sounds of Barbados that Kamau Brathwaite has given that nation and the world. Even as I listened to Kamau sing us the drumming sounds of Mile and a Quarter that drizzly night in Canterbury, I really did hear, too, the softer sounds audible nearby at "Indian Groun(d)" (now a Seventh Day Adventist Church), these the sounds of the houmfort, the tonelle, the music of his Great Uncle Bob'ob the Ogoun (and the sounds of prejudice: "white man better than red man better than black man"). It was not a fantasy. Hearing Brathwaite, I was hearing our Indian sounds, too, the drumming, the sounds of moccasined feet dancing the earth.


The extent of the trade in North American Indians that I and others are beginning to document becomes clearer with each foray into the archives. And increasingly the question becomes why the silence? I think there are two basic reasons. First, the overculture silence is easily explained by the fact that its historians never want to come to terms with a bloody and terrible past. 

The acknowledgment of African slavery by  U.S. historians took decades of struggle by African American scholars and activists. That the indigenous genocide hidden behind all United States history has yet to be recognized is, like the issue of Indian slavery, due to the powerlessness of indigenous peoples and - it must be said - to their own reluctance. 

The trade in Indian slaves was profitable both to whites and to Indians, and in many cases, the capture and sale would never have reached the extent it did without the active participation of indigenous people themselves. In a time when indigenous peoples are struggling to re-write their own histories, tell their own stories, interpret their own literatures in their own indigenous ways, research not surprisingly focuses less on the painful histories of collaboration and inter-tribal warfare and more on resistance and struggle. But the whole story, the entire past, matters - to all of us. And so this work must be done. 

Beyond the enriching of Native America's own history, as well as that of the overculture, there are other implications buried within this quest. Here, too, scholars of the African diaspora have given us a crucial lead, and we must follow it. A few examples only. As Judith Carney has painstakingly recorded the African roots of southern rice production, so Indian scholars must add the Indian roots of that same agriculture. 

As Michael Gomez has shown us with precision the African origins of southern slaves, so we must try to track our own peoples as they disappeared into the vast maw of the West Indian slave markets. As Kamau Brathwaite has recorded the African cultural roots of Bajan identity, so we must add the North American Indian contribution - to the Bajan world, as well as to the world across the Caribbean. It is time, as I realize again every time I am swamped by invitations to come to Jamaica, to the Dominican Republic, to Haiti, to Martinique and Guadeloupe, to Cuba, and back to Barbados whenever I speak of this work. Women I meet tell me that their old grannies have always told the grandchildren that they were Indian as well as African. They want me to come tell these ladies that this is so and why before their grannies die. Others - Caribbean people now living in the United States - recount similar family stories, tales that always before seemed preposterous to many of their hearers, or tales that many argued linked people of African descent only to the Arawaks or Caribs but never, ever to North American Indians.

But perhaps it is more than this. Perhaps for us indigenous scholars, it is just now, at last, time. In the words of Haitian scholar Michel-Rolph Trouillot:
"At some stage, for reasons that are themselves historical, most often spurred by controversy, collectivities experience the need to impose a test of credibility on certain events and narratives because it matters to them whether these events are true or false, whether these stories are fact or fiction."



                                           Above and below Nepuyo & Kalinago in Trinidad

                                                Above and below - Kalinagos in Dominica

                                                         Tainos in Jamaica (above)
                                            Above and below - Kalinagos in Saint Vincent

                                         Above - me with two Taino women in Baracoa Cuba

                          Above and below - some of the 100 Lokono-Arawaks in Barbados

                                                 Above and below - Tainos in Puerto Rico



 Jumma Indigenous toddler with leg nearly chopped off by non-indigenous Bengali settlers invading Jumma territory
      The little Jumma boys mother (pics above & below) who did not survive the attack

  The Bangladesh Government is so ignorant they ordered this bogus welcome sign at their International Airport have the word Índigenous' (you see in pic above) deleted from the poster below, which is what you see now when you arrive there.
 In the photo below you see PROOF that the Bangladesh military is supporting and protecting the Bengali illegal settlers on their murderous rampages, you see the Army behind them observing - never stopping them.

People in the Commonwealth only think of Bangladesh as being 'that country next to India with a sometimes good cricket team', and Cricket fans may recall the happy dancing Indigenous Christian & Buddhist Jumma women the Bangladesh government paraded for the cameras during the Cricket World Cup - in order to fool the world that Bangladesh is a happy country with no indigenous problems worth fact - if you listen to the idiot who is the First Secretary of the Bangladesh Government's Mission in New York, he actually said "There are no indigenous People in Bangladesh". 
YET, you can see from an OFFICIAL Bangladesh government poster I have attached which reads "Indigenous women in Bangladesh" (which was re-edited after this ignorance was uttered by the First Secretary to delete the word 'Indigenous' from the posters - also attached here for photographic proof) that the Neo-Colonial government of Bangladesh is not to be trusted on this issue...let's not play those silly diplomatic games and politely refrain from calling a spade a spade, when it comes to their violations of Indigenous peoples within their over-extended borders - the Government of Bangladesh is led by a very low calibre of persons that we in the Caribbean prefer to describe as 'Bold-faced Liars'. 
And just for the record - I enthusiastically invite the Government of Bangladesh to sue me - I would welcome the chance to keep highlighting their gross human rights violations in the worlds media and will be very grateful for their help in doing so by taking me to Court. Any publicity is good publicity they say!   

Ladies and gentlemen, what I am about to tell you AND show you may very likely make you sick to your stomach - especially with the photographic evidence attached.
I cannot tell you the real name of the hero who smuggled this information out of the Chittagong Hills and supplied it to me, for he would be assassinated by the Bangladesh military like so many other indigenous heroes who tried to get the TRUTH out to the wider world before him. 
We shall just call him 'Runu Jumma' - in honor of the late great war hero of the Jumma Tribes of the Chittagong Hills, who successfully fought the British...who were themselves the first outsiders in recent history to invade and attempt to conquer this beautiful and remote area. 
The British eventually had to sue for peace - as they could not win the Guerrilla war of liberation waged by these valiant tribesmen in their mountain stronghold. In the face of the tyranny they endure to this day - why did they stop the armed struggle you may ask?
Well, they gave peace a chance because in 1997 the Danish Government brokered in good faith - a Peace Accord between the Bangladesh Government and the Indigenous Jumma Freedom Fighters, the Jumma handed over all of their weapons (their biggest mistake) and upheld their end of the agreement, but the Bangladesh Government is YET to uphold their end of the agreement some 15 year later - and to the contrary have continued their murderous rampage leaving the Government of Denmark to shoulder the guilt of disarming a violently oppressed people who are now completely defenseless - like lambs to the slaughter....did I not describe the Bangladesh Government as being led by bold faced liars? I rest my case! 
It should be clear to everyone by now that the only option the Jumma have left is to re-arm and continue to fight the just war of self defense that they had been fighting before 1997.
It is very easy for someone far out of harms way to mouth empty wishful-thinking words such as 'violence solves nothing', for these types do not have to endure the daily horrors that the Jumma of Bangladesh do; even the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights says that the use of violence in defense against tyranny IS JUSTIFIED UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW.  

The Chittagong Hills is an area under the illegal military occupation by the government of Bangladesh...a thoroughly criminal political entity that encouraged AND still protects the 400,000 non-indigenous Muslim Bengali settlers (from 1979 to 1985 alone) who invaded and annexed Christian & Buddhist indigenous Jumma tribal lands; because the Bangladeshi government promised them military protection and food if they took the land that belonged to someone else! You can even see the Bangladesh Military in one of the photos in the background as illegal Bengali settlers rampage in the foreground!
To further help the Bengali illegal settlers to STAY on the indigenous Jumma lands that they have stolen - the government of Bangladesh started giving their settler proxies a monthly ration of 85 kg of food per family in 1979 - an 'ethnic cleansing insurance policy' if you will - which continues to the present day. These are all violations of Article 8 of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
Today, there are an estimated 500,000 illegal Bengali in the Chittagong Hills area of Bangladesh, in 1947 before the Bengali illegal occupation the non-Indigenous population in the Chittagong Hills was only 2%, with 98% being Indigenous Jumma tribes. Today 50% of residents in the Chittagong Hills are non-indigenous. This is a clear example of state sanctioned ethnic cleansing, and my indigenous brothers and sisters need to be alert to the ulterior motives of the Neo-Colonial states of the world who are fond of changing the indigenous demographics in order to force assimilation policies onto indigenous peoples in violation of their Internationally recognized human rights. When Indigenous Peoples begin to see non-indigenous people flooding into their territories, they should start making preparations for the inevitable war that will follow! History repeats itself in this regard. 

The vast majority of indigenous Jumma children in the Chittagong Hills cannot attend school due to the precarious lives they have been forced to lead since the Bengali invasion began (see report here), schools are on average over 6 miles away from indigenous villages and often these frightened children have to pass military checkpoints and settler homesteads - and the raping of Jumma schoolgirls by both Bangladesh Soldiers and Bengali settlers is rampant.
Little wonder then that only 8% of Jumma children complete Primary School, with only 2% completing Secondary School.  
For those who make it to the classrooms - they face racist treatment by Bengali teachers who enforce a Bengali language curriculum on indigenous children who speak their OWN languages and do not understand the difficult Bengali alphabet. This too is a violation of the rights of Indigenous Peoples to be educated in their OWN languages and in their OWN communities - according to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples Article 14, and numerous other International Laws and Conventions).   

Just when you think that things could not get any worse - the Government of Bangladesh has recently passed a new law that forbids ANY financial assistance being given to the Jumma Indigenous Peoples, here is a direct quote: "No financial endowments can be given to any student or their guardians or any other individual". Do you know why these demented criminals that run the Bangladesh government passed this law? It was not for the outright lies and convenient excuses they listed about 'national security' (sound familiar?) etc, the REAL reason was because more indigenous children were getting an education (albeit briefly - before the draconian law was enforced) with the humanitarian aid they were receiving from sympathetic donors outside of the country; but all of that is gone now. 

Ladies and Gentlemen of the Jury (of the Court of Public Opinion), I ask you it not a GROSS insult to the conscience of all who believe in Justice, Equity, and the rule of Civilized Laws...for Bangladesh to be THE biggest contributor of Soldiers to United Nations Peacekeeping operations around the world; whilst at the same time being guilty of the most heinous human rights abuses in Asia in their OWN country!
Were we not collectively shocked (due to the 'poor innocent Bangladesh' propaganda public image that we were used to) at the time when the news aired reporting on Bangladesh UN peacekeepers stationed in Sudan who committed rapes of young African girls? (see news article here). However, now that we have learned where this criminal modus operandi was rehearsed - and upon whom - such news shall not surprise us any longer - for these uniformed criminals have been thoroughly exposed for the GENOCIDAL VILLAINS that they are!